LeVine, Robert A./Campbell Donald T. 1972: Ethnocentrism: Theories of Conflict, Ethnic Attitudes and … 11. Psychol. In the criminal justice system, numerous distinct actors must be endowed by the system with the power to investigate, arrest, charge, prosecute, judge, sentence, and deprive people of their freedom, if not their lives. African Americans who say they have personally experienced discrimination are equally divided over whether institutional racism or individual prejudice is the bigger problem for Black people today (44% each; Pew Research Center, 2016). Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. When the prison population was “more Black,” voters became significantly less likely to sign a real petition aimed at lessening the severity of California’s harsh three-strikes law. In another study, we exposed White California voters to more or less extreme racial disparities in the prison population by having them view a set of photographs of incarcerated people that showed either a higher (45%) or lower (25%) percentage of Black inmates (Hetey & Eberhardt, 2014). We found that officers’ language was less respectful when directed at Blacks than when directed at Whites, even after controlling for factors such as the race of the officer, the severity of the infraction, the location of the stop, and the outcome of the stop (Voigt et al., 2017). These experiments were conducted with White participants. Email address for updates. Visit our library to view Jennifer Eberhardt's papers related to learning mindsets. 2008. Awareness of the power of institutions can be taught. Adams, G., Edkins, V., Lacka, D., Pickett, K. M., & Cheryan, S. (2008). A series of studies showing that stereotypical associations linking Blacks and crime are bidirectional and can act as visual tuning devices; for instance, exposure to Black faces facilitates the detection of weapons and activating the concept of crime creates an attentional bias toward Black faces. An Overview of Night Patrol Services in Australia. New citations to this author. In cities across the United States, racial disparities have been documented throughout the criminal justice system, from routine police stops to long-term imprisonment. Google Scholar Citations lets you track citations to your publications over time. Google Scholar. Our team has created an intervention to educate people on implicit bias and where it comes from, how it operates, and how it can be challenged. The individualistic portrayal is problematic because institutions and systems greatly contribute to reinforcing and reproducing inequality. Making Advantaged Racial Groups Care About Inequality: Intergroup Contact as a Route to Psychol... Racism in the Structure of Everyday Worlds: A Cultural-Psychological Perspective, The Psychology of Racism: An Introduction to the Special Issue. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. An article showing how informing Whites about racial disparities in executions bolsters support of the death penalty. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. Hetey, R. C., & Eberhardt, J. L. (2014). For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. By wide margins, Black respondents were more likely than White respondents to say Blacks are treated less fairly across a wide variety of settings, including the criminal justice system. (See References). Racial disparities in the use of consent searches (LaFraniere & Lehren, 2015; Palomino, 2016), for instance, have led to policy changes that mandate officers to obtain written consent or explicitly tell community members they have the right to deny an officer’s request to search them (LaFraniere, 2016). New articles related to this author's research. From 1995 to 1998 she taught at Yale University in the Departments of Psychology and African and African American Studies. Sehen Sie sich das Profil von Jennifer Eberhardt im größten Business-Netzwerk der Welt an. (, Voigt, R., Camp, N. P., Prabhakaran, V., Hamilton, W. L., Hetey, R. C., Griffiths, C. M., . New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. We argue that bringing to mind racial disparities in this domain can trigger fear and stereotypic associations linking Blacks with crime. Please consider submitting your proposal for future Dagstuhl Seminars & Workshops. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Current Directions in Psychological Science, Rebecca C. Hetey and Jennifer L. Eberhardt. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. As another example, consensus to end mass incarceration has been building. Sharing links are not available for this article. A similar pattern has emerged in other places, including Boston; Greensboro, North Carolina; Los Angeles; and New York City (American Civil Liberties Union Foundation of Massachusetts, 2014; Ayres & Borowsky, 2008; Dunn, 2013; Goel, Rao, & Shroff, 2016; LaFraniere & Lehren, 2015). More research should investigate the consequences of educating the public about implicit bias and illustrating how implicit associations linking Blacks with crime can profoundly affect our perceptions, decision making, and actions without conscious awareness or malicious intention. Blacks feel they are treated with less respect than Whites during these routine stops (Epp, Maynard-Moody, & Haider-Markel, 2014). Compendium of Studies that Measure Learning Mindsets, Data Archive for Interdisciplinary Research On Learning, Mindsets and the Learning Environment Research Portfolio, National Study of Learning Mindsets Early Career Fellowship, Inclusive Mathematics Environments Early Career Fellowship, K-12 Teachers and Classrooms Research Portfolio, Two strikes: Race and the disciplining of young students, A vicious cycle: A social-psychological account of extreme racial disparities in school discipline, Compendium of Studies That Measure Learning Mindsets. Follow this author . . UPDATES Sign up to receive periodic updates from the Mindset Scholars Network. (, Eberhardt, J. L., Goff, P. A., Purdie, V. J., Davies, P. G. (, Epp, C. R., Maynard-Moody, S., Haider-Markel, D. P. (, Guerino, P, Harrison, P. M., Sabol, W. J. Tutorials about structural or sociocultural racism have been shown to decrease the extent to which White Americans define racism in terms of individual biases, increase perceptions and acknowledgment of systemic racism, and increase endorsement of policies designed to promote equality (G. Adams et al., 2008). View the profiles of people named Jennifer Eberhard. Follow this author. An article illustrating that the standard portrayal of racism in social psychology is as an individual prejudice but that, as the authors show, an awareness of structural or sociocultural racism can be taught. Crime, Aboriginality and the Decolonisation of Justice. Black Americans surely feel the effects of these stereotypical associations: Nearly half of Blacks (47%) say someone in the past year has acted as if they were suspicious of them (Pew Research Center, 2016). [Google Scholar] Aron AR. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. 2007; 13:214–228. Upload PDF. Jennifer L. Eberhardt et al., Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing, 87 J. Therefore, rather than extending an invitation to reexamine the criminal justice system, the statistics about disparities may instead provide an opportunity to justify and rationalize the disparities found within that system. Fear and stereotypic associations also contribute. Bestseller Neuerscheinungen Preishits ² eBooks verschenken . View the profiles of people named Jenny Eberhardt. rather than leading the public to examine the systemic forces involved, decontextualized information about racial inequality can lead people to engage in defensive processes that instead blame the victim (Kaiser & Miller, 2003) while protecting the self and the status quo (G. Adams et al., 2006; Lowery, Knowles & Unzueta, 2007). Auf LinkedIn können Sie sich das vollständige Profil ansehen und mehr über die Kontakte von Jennifer Eberhardt und Jobs bei ähnlichen Unternehmen erfahren. To contextualize is to convey that racial disparities are not natural or due to fixed stereotypical traits. Once stopped, African Americans were significantly more likely to be handcuffed, searched, and arrested (Hetey, Monin, Maitreyi, & Eberhardt, 2016). Google Scholar. We are currently rolling out this training to law enforcement agencies across California. Ironically, researchers have found that being presented with evidence of extreme racial disparities in the criminal justice system can cause the public to become more, not less, supportive of the punitive criminal justice policies that produce those disparities. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. People of color, and African Americans in particular, are more likely than Whites to have direct experience with, perceive, and engage in discussions about racial inequality and discrimination. When exposed to a more-Black prison population, only 12% of participants said they would sign the petition, compared with 33% of participants exposed to a less-Black prison population. An alternative interpretation is that members of particular racial groups must be doing something—namely committing crime—to capture the attention of police and be imprisoned at higher rates (e.g., B. Adams, 2016). A consistent pattern of racial disparities less fairly in dealing with the.!, is Morris M. Doyle Centennial Professor of public Policy, Professor of public Policy, Professor public. Specifically on Policing and incarceration in particular the role of imprisonment in exacerbating inequality and.... 1990 ) and Ph.D. ( 1993 ) from Harvard University, videos more. Potential strategies that may mitigate this paradoxical effect and provide important avenues future. In the profile treated with less respect than Whites during these routine (... 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