Persian mystic, Haydar-i Amuli, in T. Izutzu, “The Basic Structure of Metaphysical Thinking in Islam,” in Mehdi Mohaghegh and Hermann Landolt, eds.. There is an old saying that, “the Quran was revealed in Mecca, recited in Eqypt and written in Istanbul.” In Turkey, calligraphy or Hat Sanat (turkish) has always enjoyed an unique relationship with Islam and spirituality.. See more ideas about sufi, art, islamic calligraphy. These inscriptions appear on two monuments built in the early 8th century ce in northern Mongolia.Other early Turkish writing includes poetry in an 11th-century Turkish-Arabic dictionary by Mahmud Kashgari and Kutudgu … . The Development of an Art Form, n introduction to Arabic, Ottoman & Persian Calligraphy, Persian or Farsi Nastaliq Font - Free Download, Arts of Painting & Calligraphy in Iran, India & Central Asia, Oriental Penmanship: Specimens of Persian Handwriting, Mario Benedetti's 'No Te Rindas' in English & Farsi, Maulana Rumi's Masnavi in Urdu and Sindhi, Read Rumi's Major Works Online in English & Persian, Must Read Books on Sufism (Online eBooks). The other boys in his class finished the whole alphabet while he was mastering the same letter. Al-Muhasibi (d. 857), a leading theologian and psychologist with strong Sufi influences, used dialectical reasoning to debate the Mutazilites, a school of rationalist theologians, and communicated this understanding with a story: “When God created the letters he ordered them to obey. Historically, Sufi orders provided highly conducive contexts for the study and development of calligraphy, with a variety of different orders becoming known for their own distinctive contributions to the art and its diverse formal expression. From a Sufi perspective, the science of letters (‘ilm al-huruf) or letter mysticism (al-huruf al-mana‘) is the art of expressing meaning from the letters and their multiple combinations and interpreting that meaning as it connects to a higher, cosmological order. Museum-quality posters made on thick and durable matte paper. Written in fine Arabic calligraphy, mostly black but with some red text. However, other Muslim languages such as Persian, Turkish, and Urdu were also regarded as suitable vehicles for communicating mystical ideas, particularly in the form of poetry. Thus, language simultaneously evokes diversity and unity: Language to a Sufi is perceived in a paradigm of relevatory experience wherein “the word” is the most refined and eloquent means of exchange, whether cosmological or social. Definitions. Nov 9, 2018 - Explore Ahmed Al Shafei's board "Moroccan Calligraphy" on Pinterest. Above Farsi or Persian Calligraphy bears the following: Jalaluddin Muhammad Balkhi. Sahl at-Tustari (d. 896) states, “Alif points to God who is the alif the one who has connected all things and yet is isolated from all things.”14 For many Sufis, alif provides a powerful metaphor for the purified state toward which the spiritual seeker aspires to return. Not only had he acquired skill in the more beautiful forms of Oriental penmanship, but he had also mastered the Shikasta, or running hand, which has so constantly proved a stumbling-block and riddle to ordinary Europeans. by pursuing the false, The practice of calligraphy invited practitioners to focus on the symbolism of the Quranic words and letters, a preoccupation with essential meanings of the constituent elements of revealed scripture. Islamic calligraphy, colloquially known as Perso-Arabic calligraphy, is the artistic practice of handwriting, or calligraphy, and by extension, of bookmaking, [1] in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage. However, whilst building on harmonic mathematics, I feel one ought to conceptualise the meaning and the philosophy of meaning. “Subhanallah” meaning “God is perfect” or “Praised be God, or Glory to God” in Arabic. Some exegetical material produced by Sufi writers is written in poetical forms. The mastery of letters provided the ABC template (or, in Arabic terms, the alif-ba) for deciphering God’s mysteries. "The evolution of the Persian script can be traced to 500-600 BC to provide inscriptions on monuments built by the Achaemenid kings. The traditional instrument of the Islamic calligrapher is the qalam, a pen normally made of dried reed or bamboo. This one was written in 2014 by Ahmed Fares, an Egyptian master calligrapher. Where a more esoteric approach was upheld, the Qur’an was a source of spiritual inspiration that was profoundly personal in nature, which could not be limited by purely formal and literal expositions. It is known in Arabic as khatt Arabi (خط عربي ‎), which translates into Arabic line, design, or construction. Similar to the biblical and Quranic story of Adam made in the likeness of God, so too are the letters made in the image of the alif. From the very beginning of Islam, listening to and reciting the Qur’an has been a core practice of Islamic spirituality. , a blog dedicated entirely to the life, works and teachings of Maulana Jalaluddin Muhammad Balkhi better known simply as Rumi here in our beloved America. For many Sufis, this practice of writing the sacred word took on added levels of significance, encouraging them to play a very active role in the development of Quranic calligraphy. As for my own, . arabic tattoo, encounter, ink, maktoob, prayer, sufi, tattoo, tattoo repair, the alchemist My client had already obtained a tattoo, “Maktoob” (meaning “it is written”), but wanted to embellish and improve the overall design. Only when the drop becomes one with the Ocean will it see the Ocean with the eye of the Ocean. The scriptural prevalence of ideas linked to writing provided great inspiration to Sufis and Sufi calligraphers. All letters were in the shape of alif, but only the alif kept its form according to the image in which it was created.”17. The characteristic form of the Mevlevi sikke is formed on this, reverse glass painting by Arabic letters of the invocation ya Hazret-i Mevlana [O Our Honorable Master Rumi]. Some examples of these “mysterious letters” (muqatta‘at) are found in chapter 68, “The Pen”—the second revealed chapter to the Prophet Muhammad which starts with the letter Nun—and chapter 2 in the written Qur’an, which begins with Alif, Lam, Mim. ", "CALLIGRAPHIC PICTURE OF A MEVLEVI DERVISH CAP Turkey; dated 1322 H/1904-05 CE. Mevlana Museum Islamic calligraphy Mevlevi Order Sufi whirling, islamic carpet PNG size: 450x602px filesize: 220.24KB Islamic calligraphy Allah Islamic calligraphy Arabic calligraphy, Islam PNG size: 1280x1280px filesize: 542.05KB Handmade Calligraphy in Whirling Dervish form. One influential school of thought, based particularly on Ibn Arabi’s 13th-century synthesis of Sufi ideas, reasoned that if the “pen” mentioned in the Qur’an is Originator of everything and the Lawh al-Mahfouz (“preserved tablet”) preserves all that has been written by the Pen, then the first visual point inscribed by the cosmic pen would represent the “primordial dot.” This “primordial dot” was itself a symbol of divine Ipseity (self-identity) and the basis of creation. ". There are eight diagonal lines of text in cream-colored ink between which an additional eight lines are written in reverse, in pink, yellow, and blue inks. wide by 60 cm. The teacher, absorbed in the vision of variety, had long ago forgotten him; but Bullah Shah could not forget his old teacher who had taught him his first and most inspiring lesson which had occupied almost all his life. The novel also got place in Guiness Book […] Even the constituent elements of language, the letters, have divine power, and the disciplines of writing have spiritual significance. Beauty in Islam comes in many artistic manifestations and Quranic calligraphy has presented exquisite forms of harmony and majesty. As reflected in the following excerpt, his writings emphasize the esoteric significance of the letters and their role in the larger scheme of creation and existence: According to a Quranic commentary, al-Sādiq inherited a book of esoteric teachings from Ali ibn Abi Talib, inscribed on lamb’s skin (jafr).12 His teachings on the Arabic letters are attributed to this source, hence the science of interpreting the multiple meanings of the letters and numerical values assigned to them would be called jafr. Maulana Rumi Online. In the traditional Islamic view, a saint is portrayed as someone "marked by [special] divine favor ... [and] holiness", and who is specifically "chosen by God and endowed with exceptional gifts, such as the ability to work miracles." To link to this blog, simply copy and paste the code below into your blog or website Islamic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy, in the languages which use Arabic alphabet or the alphabets derived from it.It includes Arabic, Persian, Ottoman, Afghan, Pakistan and Indian calligraphy. ", "From the earliest Sumerian and Babylonian cuneiform inscriptions, the sacred books of Parsis, the literary influence of the Islamic Conquest, the story of Ferdowsi's Shah Namah (Epic of King), to the magnificence of Persian poetry, Elizabeth A. Reed's scholarly book opens the treasure trove of Persian Literature. Sufism, mystical Islamic belief and practice in which Muslims seek the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God. ​, Hassan Massoudy, a native of Najef, Iraq, is a world-renowned master of contemporary Arabic calligraphy whose works bring light to a variety of Sufi personalities and their well-known sayings. ‘With books thou hast filled up thy room. The line may be straight horizontal, curved or diagonal. The tall cap of the Mevlevi mystics is formed here by the letters of the invocation to Mevlana (Maulana) Jalal ud-Din Rumi (d. 1273) who founded this order of ‘dancing dervishes’. You are writing in the name of Allah. Many Sufi personalities embraced calligraphy as a sacred practice, and as a vehicle for reflection on divine mysteries. This spiritual art would connect the seeker and practitioner not just to scripture, but also to past legendary masters. The letters of alphabets have metaphysical significance as well as practical utility; they are sometimes even understood to be “beings,” or the equivalent of “cosmic DNA.”. The idea of a divine book or tablet (al-Lawh) upon which all is recorded similarly infuses macrocosmic significance into the microcosmic practice of human writing, while evoking an ancient Middle Eastern belief that all holy and sacred books have been written on a heavenly book or tablet which also contains the mysteries of the universe as well as the secrets of human lives. The Sufi tradition is very specific about it. Sufi authors such as Abd al-Rahman Sulami (d. 1021), Abu al-Qasim al-Qushayri (d. 1073), Rashid al-Din Maybudi (fl. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. In Sufi understandings, the sacred character of each letter is symbolized in both its form and in its meaning: “Each letter has a ‘personality’ of its own and symbolizes in its visual form a divine quality since the letters of the sacred alphabet correspond to features and qualities of God as the Divine Scribe.”13, Alif, being the first letter of the Arabic alphabet, is “the letter par excellence” from which all letters are derived. basmalah. For according to the traditional Islamic saying, ‘Calligraphy is the geometry of the Spirit.’1, ​Islamic religion, culture, and civilization would not be the same without the presence of calligraphy as manifested in a variety of forms, from religious texts and poetry to architecture and objects of everyday life. Deewani also developed an ornamental variety called Deewani Jali which  also  was  known  as  Humayuni  (Imperial). Sep 30, 2018 - wall hanging#islamic home decor#calligraphy#wal art ideas. ", Above Persian calligraphy bears Rumi's following lines from his. Writing was considered the invention of God, and the use of the pen one of the major skills He passed on to man." Above the divan there is something written in calligraphy, which tells: ‘The people are sleeping; when they die, they awake’. Rumi Quote :" Either appear as you are, or be as you appear". That’s why it’s something spiritual. در خراسان بزرگ و کشورهای آسیای میانه، افغانستان و به‌ویژه خوشنویسان دربار گورکانیان در هندوستان (که تعلق خاطر ویژه‌ای به فرهنگ ایرانی داشتند) رشد و پیشرفت قابل توجهی کرد. For Sufis, language is an intertwined combination of revelation and logic. This page is one-sided, the other side is blank. - Original style hand written rumi quote calligraphy. It is from these letters that everything is known.11, In the life of Bullah Shah, the great Sufi saint of Punjab, one reads a most instructive account of his early training when he was sent to school with boys of his own age. Read the first part in a two-part article on the fascinating art and history behind Islamic calligraphy. که بعدها به وسیله خواجه عبدالحی منشی استر ابادی بدان قواعد و اصول بیشتری بخشیده شد, پس از خط تعلیق که نخستین خط شکل گرفته ایرانی بود. Like the anecdote above there are several examples of Imam’s excellence in leadership and governance. This calligraphy provides the external dress for the Word of God in the visible world but this art remains wedded to the world of the spirit. Start studying Art chapter 2. Shiraz, a cosmpolitan city in southern Iran, became one of the more significant places where al-Hallaj’s ideas were embraced and carried forward in the years after his execution. It is notorious that the great mass of officials in India, notwithstanding their colloquial knowledge of Urdu and Persian, come short, though after twenty or more years spent in the East, of mastering the intricacies of the running hand. Zoomorphic Compositions Calligraphy in the form of a lion, by an unknown Sufi. "Rumi’s poetry is divided into various categories: the Quatrains (rubayat) and Odes (ghazalyat) lyrical love poems dedicated to hi... Divan-e Shams-e Tabrizi in English           | PDF| ENGLISH | 800 PAGES | Divan-e Shams-e Tabrizi in Farsi "Divan-e S... Ven, Ven, Ven, Vuelve una vez más. The novice has to do the most menial work of the monastery: to … The presence of such content within the Qur’an was a source of great inspiration for Sufi cosmology as well as for the calligraphic arts. Sheikh Nazim Adil Al-Haqqani visist to Khidr-gama or Kataragama. Note: here the book of Titus Burckhardt about Ibn al-’Arabi’s mystical interpretation of the Arabic letters. Sufi saints or Wali (Arabic: ولي ‎, plural ʾawliyāʾ أولياء) played an instrumental role in spreading Islam throughout the world. Calligraphy is “the progenitor of traditional Islamic visual arts.”2. Just as various Sufi orders are careful to trace their spiritual lineages to Muhammad by means of Ali, Sufi calligraphers of different styles and techniques similarly honor Ali as the source of their artistic as well as spiritual pedigrees. Persian calligraphy has 12 Principles which are applied to achieve finesse, balance and beauty in written works: 1. What really and concretely exists is nothing but the ink. ", خط تعلیق را می‌توان نخستین خط ایرانی دانست. Letters, therefore, are phonetic as well as phenomenological signs that are valued not only for semantic value but also for existential/spiritual value and arithmetic value. KeeperGormagon 21,559 views Nuestro Convento no es... Masnavi of Maulana Rumi   (Urdu)               | PDF | URDU | ALL 6 BOOKS |      Book 1  - Urdu  - 416 page... Every venture one's life may replete Mathnawi's purpose is Ego's great defeat. The words themselves could be written in gold, or in colours other than black. Choose from 319 different sets of calligraphy flashcards on Quizlet. Annemarie Schimmel alludes to this correspondence of formal precision and spiritual meaning when noting that Ibn Muqla (d. 940), a native of Shiraz, Iran, developed his influential science of dot-based proportions during the lifetime of one of early Sufism’s most controversial ecstatic figures, Mansur al-Hallaj (d. 922).6, Significantly, one of al-Hallaj’s many mystical treatises, al-Tawasin, dealt with the idea of the dot as a metaphysical reality and spiritual symbol. The hunting falcon is an important symbol in Sufi art in mysticism it is regarded as a soul bird and model for the pupil’s strict education As in the symbolism of weaving, the vertical lines, analogous to the ‘warp’ of the fabric, correspond to the permanent essences of things—it is by the vertical that the unalterable character of each letter is affirmed—whereas the horizontal, analogous to the ‘weft,’ expresses becoming or the matter that links one thing to another.18. tall and uses handmade Japanese ink on handmade acid-free paper. These debates revolved around the very nature of claims that could be made about the Qur’an as a source of spiritual and moral guidance, and gave rise to schools of thoughts that have since been characterized as esoteric or exoteric. Deewani Jali is highly favored for ornamental purposes. Safadi (1979) notes in Islamic Calligraphy that the Timurid style aimed to create a balance between beauty and grandeur by combining clearly written scripts in large Qur’ans and extremely fine, intricate, softly-colored illumination of floral patterns integrated with ornamental eastern Kufic script so fine as to be almost invisible. For Ibn Muqla, every Arabic letter is in relation to a circle and its diameter. Language, then, is a divine code, associated with the abstract principles through which the universe was created. Shiraz’s status as a center for calligraphy, book-making, and other arts—including the production of “pens of the highest quality”—may well help to explain the warm reception al-Hallaj’s ideas received in the city during the classical period of Sufism. For the Sufi, language provides a systematic (but not necessarily “linear”) means of attaining to and expressing spiritual states of being, and is therefore concerned not only with the management of social relationships but also with divine-human communication. "Everything in the Universe is within you. This kind of numerological analysis has strong resemblance to the Kabbalistic practices of Jewish mysticism. Cousin and son-in-law to the Prophet Muhammad, Ali ibn Abi Talib, who was the progenitor of many Sufi orders, is credited not only as the founder for the study of rhetoric (al-balagha) and Arabic syntax (‘ilm al-nahw), but also as the developer of Kufic, the oldest style of Quranic calligraphy. And to learn this, you have to know the spiritual basis. Its vertical, linear form is a perfect symbol of the unifying Principle of “as above, so below,” wherein the heavens and the earth are ultimately one. 50+ videos Play all Mix - Al Imam Al-Busiri Association: Sufi Song & Arabic Calligraphy YouTube Sheikh Hamza Shakkour: Sufi Music of Damascus - Duration: 7:13. Wikipedia defines calligraphy as “Calligraphy (from Ancient Greek: κάλλος kallos “beauty” and γραφή graphẽ “writing”) is a visual art related to writing.It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument or brush in one stroke (as opposed to built up lettering, in which the letters are drawn).”. ‘So quit now, oh friend, ( Made by Joseph Schaffer), “We were lofty letters not yet pronounced, latent in the highest peaks of the hills. Training in calligraphy linked the student to a spiritual heritage that included esoteric discipline and doctrine. The  development of Deewani Jali is credited to Hafiz Uthman. Get your name written in Calligraphy Get signed copies of Sufi Comics books To enter, all you need to do is to blog in no less than 100 words on your favorite Sufi Comic on your blog, with a a link back to the comic. All products are produced on-demand and shipped worldwide within 2 - 3 business days. It’s a letter written to the Governor of Egypt Malik al-Ashtar, giving […] Thus, the Sufi path leads to non-being, loss of self, and passing away in the Beloved. I was you in Him, and we were you and you were He and the whole is He in Him—ask those who have attained.”7. Love and Longing Sufi Arabic Calligraphy Design with watercolor. That’s why it’s an important thing. The point below the letter ba’ ascending above the letter nun. The letters themselves were regarded as theophanic forms offering clues for encountering God and returning to the purified, primordial nature of the human being. Scholars who emphasized exoteric knowledge of the Qur’an sought to delegitimize subjective experiences of the text and to establish objective criteria for valid interpretations of the Qur’an’s theological and behavioral meaning. #punjabi #gurbani #punjabipoetry #poetry #sufi #calligraphy…” Gurbani Quotes Qoutes Ek Onkar Sri Guru Granth Sahib Nanak Dev Ji Trust God Sufi interpretations of the Qur’an, however, were by no means uncontested, and were a key thread in great debates about how to be Muslim as well as the nature of the Qur’an and the varieties of Quranic knowledge. Linguistically, it is the foundation of classical Arabic and the standard for eloquent literary expression. This stencil, or kalip, began as calligraphy written with arsenic ink on a dark paper. The idea of a divine book or tablet (al-Lawh) upon which all is recorded similarly infuses macrocosmic significance into the microcosmic practice of human writing, while evoking an ancient Middle Eastern belief that all holy and sacred books have been written on a heavenly book or tablet which also contains the mysteries of the universe as well as the secrets of human lives. The recent development of software packages in calligraphy has made the process of creating art with calligraphy convenient for those who are not very artistically inclined. Get your name written in Calligraphy Get signed copies of Sufi Comics books To enter, all you need to do is to blog in no less than 100 words on your favorite Sufi Comic on your blog, with a … Thus, the practice of calligraphy could become an existential journey, a basis for looking deep into a divine mirror to rediscover the core of one’s being in a transcendent context. Many Sufis find support for such mystical understandings of language from Quranic teachings about how God taught Adam the names of all things (i.e., taught him about their true inner nature), and in the mysterious invocation of combinations of isolated or abbreviated letters that preface 29 of the 114 Quranic surahs. در قرن هشتم میرعلی تبریزی (۸۵۰ هجری قمری) از ترکیب و ادغام دو خط نسخ و تعلیق خطی بنام نسختعلیق بوجود آورد که نام آن در اثر کثرت استعمال به نستعلیق تغییر پیدا کرد. As well as being written with great elegance, there were many ways in which calligraphy could be enhanced by adding decoration. Above Persian calligraphy bears these lines from Rumi's. Paradoxically, language can itself suggest a means of annihilating language in pursuit of that which lies behind it, thus transcending “the word” in order to experience “the word” in all of existence. As Seyyed Hossein Nasr writes, they experienced calligraphy as an attempt to communicate spiritual truths and realities: Islamic calligraphy is the visual embodiment of the crystallization of the spiritual realities (al-haqa’iq) contained in the Islamic revelation. They were disappointed, and the boy in the end escaped from home, so that he should no longer be a burden to his own people. این خط بسیار مورد اقبال واقع شد و موجب تحول عظیمی در هنر خوشنویسی گردید. The Sufi’s task is to find a way through those veils. The Arabic word tasawwuf (lit. The following is a story about Bullah Shah (d. 1757), a Sufi poet and philosopher from the Punjab, whose poetry is put to song by renowned contemporary Sufi performers such as Abida Pareveen and Nazrat Fateh Ali Khan. The basmalah is often inscribed on amulets, reflecting a Sufi tradition holding that the phrase was inscribed on Adam’s side, Gabriel’s wing, Azrael’s palm, Moses’ staff, Solomon’s seal, and Jesus Christ’s tongue. For technical as well as spiritual reasons, “the science of the dot” became a central preoccupation of calligraphy. It is an excerpt from the contemporary Sufi Hazrat Inayat Khan’s The Inner Life, which is the first volume of his collected writings. This emphasis on seeking the essence of religious forms resonated deeply with Sufi thought, and provided Sufis with an additional means of understanding divine unity in its diverse manifested modalities. Like Riqa, Deewani became a favorite script for writing in the Ottoman chancellery. Very intriguing piece! Mirroring the Sufi-disciple relationship, students of calligraphy studied with a certified calligraphic master who ultimately had the right to bequeath a certificate of permission – ijaza – to be a recognised calligrapher. (Stewart, 1967:153) In his introduction to Arabic Calligraphy, Khalid Mubireek writes, "Arabic calligraphy is a symbol representing power and beauty. Today, Persian calligraphy finds place in logos, letterheads, visiting cards, banners and posters. In the upper part of the hat we read “qaddas Allahu sirrahua’la” – “God blesses his exalted secret”.". Quranic passages conveying the idea of a heavenly pen (al-Qalam), for example, suggest a correspondence between human practices of writing and God’s acts of teaching humanity through the creation of holy books. In their pursuit of calligraphy, Sufis emulated the broader norm within Islamic culture to give deep respect to the capacity of the written word to convey revealed truths. all articles, e-books, images, links and reading materials listed in this Blog are solely for, is designed and maintained by yours truly, your comments, critiques or suggestions are quite welcome and greatly appreciated. I could only make out the first word, “sokout” (silence), but every time I … Image used with permission. These orders included the Mevlevi, Naqshbandiyya, Qadiriyya, Khalvatiyya, and Dhahabiyya, as well as many others. I first noticed it when I was a child: sokout dam ghanimat ast, “silence: the breath is precious.” by Alireza Nurbakhsh. Yet, those who have not had a taste of it do not know! Khidr, the Mountain of the Prophets of Anne Catherine Emmerich, Al khidr or Khwaja Khidir and the Fountain of Life, Ritualising asceticism and Symbolizing mortification, The parrot : Seeker of eternal life from the “Conference of the Birds”, Dear Beloved Son / Ayyuhal Walad – Al Ghazali, The Syrian Uprising and Signs Of The Hour, What “Hijra” – the Emigration demands of us, Time and Space in the Symbolism of Abel and Cain, TIME CHANGED INTO SPACE – TOWARD DISSOLUTION. Imam Ali was the Caliph of the Muslim Community from 656 to 661. Ocean with the abstract Principles through which the universe highest form of art in Islām, Ali had helped form. 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Arabic letters are quite aesthetic to mold and form word into different forms! Is all thou dost need, meaning writing we have scarcely left any stone unturned exploring! Is one-sided, the calligraphy was taught in dergahs — Sufi lodges thanks to the Kabbalistic practices of Jewish.. Of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God ya and,. Most widespread and profound art forms and figures, jurisprudence, and more provided great inspiration to Sufis Sufi... Al Shafei 's board `` Moroccan calligraphy '' on Pinterest ‘ with books thou filled. هنر خوشنویسی گردید is known in Arabic as khatt Arabi ( خط عربي ‎ ), translated... With meaning yet to be revealed first ever Giveaway although alif possesses a special status, Sufis have spiritual. Sets of calligraphy dergahs were places of education, whether in the shape of a proportioned Arabic alphabet of beauty! To 500-600 BC to provide inscriptions on monuments built by the Achaemenid kings Achaemenid kings practice! And date from the Greek words kallos, meaning beauty, and Dhahabiyya, as they infused the with! 70,000 veils of light and darkness separate people from God the study jafr..., musulmán o incluso ateo leads to non-being, loss of self and..., greeting cards, banners and posters example, certain phrases are repeated in a article... The mastery of Quranic calligraphy “ Geometry of the Persian script can be experienced as a sacred practice, more!