Intakes of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate affect cardiovascular health and may be beneficial for stroke prevention via the reduction of plasma homocysteine levels [14,32,33]. Vitamins and Minerals: Help or Harm? Grasping vitamins and antioxidants from sources that are natural is still the best but, in this kind of life that we have and in this fast paced world that we live, people tend to be very busy hence, making it difficult for them to prepare fresh foods. Match the fat-soluble vitamin with the potential side effect when that fat-soluble vitamin is taken in excessive quantities: Identify the foods that are the best sources of the fat-soluble vitamins. -Having a healthy GI tract through which digestive contents can easily flow, antioxidant that participates in connective tissue function. Furthermore, some in-vivo studies have also reported results with a reduced superoxide burst in the ganglion cells of the retina after vitamin B12 administration [6]. Alpha-Tocopherol May Protect Hepatocytes Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Endurance Training in Growing Organisms. The Journal of Nutrition 143 (2013): 1432-1438. Vitamin B6 deficiency was found to be linked with attention deficit disorder. Thanan R, Oikawa S, Hiraku Y, et al. Last summer, Loraine's garden yielded more food than her family could eat. Shimizu H, Tsubola T, Kanki K, et al. Biophys. This review discusses both in-vivo and in-vitro studies on the antioxidant properties of vitamins. An improved antioxidant potential in the body can reduce oxidative stress and prevent or improve disease conditions. 4.6.4 Vitamin B3 and oxidative stress: Reduction of oxidative stress is by increasing the antioxidant potential through improved endogenous antioxidants, such as the enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Reductase (GR) [108], and exogenous antioxidants like nutritional antioxidants including tocopherols, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, niacin, and some trace elements [109]. BMC Neurol 15 (2015): 19. Li J, Wang H, Rosenberg PA. Vitamin K prevents oxidative cell death by inhibiting activation of 12-lipoxygenase in developing oligodendrocytes. An in-vitro study reported that vitamin B6 prevented the generation of oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation in U937 monocytes, which may occur via alteration of mitochondrial function [96], Vitamin B6 deficient rats developed peroxidative stress because of increased thiobarbituric acid activity in the rat liver and heart [97] suggesting a pivotal role for pyridoxine in preventing peroxidation. Boyonoski AC, Gallacher LM, ApSimon MM, et al. Hirota Y, Tsugawa N, Nakagawa K. Menadione (vitamin K3) is a catabolic product of oral phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in the intestine and a circulating precursor of tissue menaquinone-4 (vitamin K2) in rats. Vitamin A from animal sources is known as retinoid, whereas, the vitamin A from the plant source is called provitamin A carotenoids [22]. University of Campania-Luigi Vanvitelli Homocysteine is readily oxidised to hydrogen peroxide, thereby increasing reactive oxygen species in the body [104, 105]. It is involved in energy production from carbohydrates and fats [34]. Verhaar MC, Stroes E, Rabelink TJ. Effects of B2-deficiency on lipo-peroxide and its scavenging system in the rat lens. Future Microbiology 4 (2009): 1151-1165. It has critical importance for human health. Vitamins in Animal and Human Nutrition. Water-soluble vitamins are not associated with fats and are unaffected by alterations in fat absorption [20, 21]. Vitamin E shields the body structures from oxidative damage. Trends in neural tube defect prevalence, folic acid fortification, and vitamin supplement use. © 2016-2021, Copyrights Fortune Journals. Shearer MJ, Fu X, Booth SL. Production of free radicals is in non-enzymatic reactions of oxygen with organic compounds as well as those initiated by ionising reactions. Dietary sources of vitamin C includes papaya, bell peppers, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, strawberries, pineapple, oranges, kiwifruit, cantaloupe, cauliflower, kale, cabbage, Bokchoy, grapefruit, parsley, turnip greens, beet greens, mustard greens, collard greens, raspberries, Swiss chard, tomatoes, lemons and limes, spinach, asparagus, sea vegetables, fennel, and sweet potatoes [49]. An antioxidant is any compound that can slow or prevent the action of an oxidant. Tyagi N. Mechanisms of homocysteine-induced oxidative stress. Gluconeogenesis in meal-fed, vitamin B-6-deficient rats. β-Carotene is located, together with vitamin E, in the lipid core of LDL particles. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 297 (2009): 1358-1367. FAD-binding site of glutathione reductase. Several animal studies indicated the negative effects of riboflavin deficiency on lipid metabolism as well as the desired effect of riboflavin administration [89-93]. It helps stop cells from becoming cancerous growths by preventing oxidative DNA damage. Even though the possible part of other vitamins on oxidative stress has received little attention, these vitamins have not been well appraised for their role in health as an antioxidant or in their deficiency state. They attain stability by acquiring electrons from nearby molecules in the body, causing a cascade of reactions resulting in cellular damage and diseases [9, 10]. Antioxidant and prooxidant activities of B group vitamins in lipid peroxidation. Wang G, Li W, Lu X, et al. Cantaloupe, cauliflower, kale, cabbage, Bok choy, grapefruit, parsley, turnip greens, beet greens, mustard greens, collard greens, raspberries, Swiss chard, tomatoes, lemons and limes, spinach, asparagus, sea vegetables, fennel, and sweet potatoes [49]. Glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes represent a coordinately regulated defense against oxidative stress. All these three forms have been reported to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation [60], and the antioxidant ability of vitamin D was reported to be comparable to the anticancer drug Tamoxifen [60]. Three different types of Vitamin K are known, namely; K1 (Phylloquinone), K2 (Menaquinone) and K3 (Menadione). Journal of the Neurological Sciences 262 (2007): 158-164. Micronutrients and HIV. Furthermore, all-trans retinoic acid-induced superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase activities, while it decreased malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species in both healthy and varicocele sperm, which suggests that retinol enhances antioxidant enzyme activity [59]. Ba A. Metabolic and structural role of vitamin B1e in nervous tissues. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 29 (1983): 283-292. Vita min B 2 rec ycles glutathione, which is the most crucial antioxidant which protects against free radicals in the body. Generally nutritional sources for vitamin K are: spinach, mustard greens, beet greens, Swiss chard, turnip greens, parsley, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, romaine lettuce, asparagus, basil, cabbage, celery, kiwifruit, green beans, cucumber, tomatoes, black pepper, green peas, blueberries, carrots, soybeans, avocado, raspberries, winter squash, pear, cranberries, bell peppers, plum, cantaloupe and eggplant [30]. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24 (2004): 816-823. Marshall CW. Vitamin B9 is vital for brain health and provides support for the cardiovascular and nervous system in human [45]. Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Wiseman H. Vitamin D is a membrane antioxidant. British Journal of Hematology 44 (1980): 511-513. Oxidative stress is responsible for the development of many chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases [1], cancer [2], and diabetes [3]. Shin J, Soo JY, Yunsook L. Gamma-tocopherol supplementation ameliorated hyper-inflammatory response during the early cutaneous wound healing in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Kasperczyk S, Michal D, Aleksandra K, et al. Maritim AC, Sanders RA, Watkins JB. Also, retinoic acid, which is a metabolite of vitamin A, was reported to upregulate expression of anti-oxidant related genes in in-vitro mature buffalo oocytes [58]. Jacob is 8 years old and his family experiences food insecurity. Also, vitamin K hydroquinone (KH2) was a potent biological antioxidant [76], there is a shortage of information on the regenerative antioxidative enzymatic mechanisms for this required trace nutrient [75] which could be an area of research interest. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 110 (2006): 13068-13072. Br Med Bull 49 (1993): 481-493. Many studies have examined the antioxidant potential of some vitamins such as vitamin E, vitamin C, and Carotenoids and their role in human health. Heitzer T, Schlinzig T, Krohn K, et al. Combined Administration of l-Carnitine and Ascorbic Acid Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats. Biochem. Biotin was formerly known as coenzyme R, vitamin H, or vitamin B7, but now in recent times, it is known as Biotin. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 23 (2003): 5816-5826. Vitamin D supplementation for nine weeks among pregnant women has beneficial effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress. Match the condition that the family member has with the corresponding nutrient deficiency that causes it: -Vitamins that travel with dietary fats through the bloodstream, -Vitamins that are readily excreted from the body. Journal of the American Medical Association 274 (1995): 1698-1702. Int J Vit Nutr Res 53 (1983): 377-382. A similar study reported reduced lipid peroxides like malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in diabetic rats after riboflavin administration [94]. 4.6.2 Vitamin B6 and oxidative stress: Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine), is one of the water-soluble B vitamins that are essential for protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism [42]. Vitamin E discovered in 1922, together with its physiological functions, and its anti-oxidative effects, have been studied for nearly a century now [67].Vitamin E is fat-soluble compounds divided into tocopherols and tocotrienols each occurring in the alpha, beta, gamma, and delta forms. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Research 2 (2019): 214-235. Chan W, Almasieh M, Catrinescu MM, et al. Riboflavin can be regarded as one of the neglected antioxidant nutrients, because primarily, vitamin C, E, and Carotenoids are mainly known to be antioxidants. Vitamin C is vital in the production of collagen, which is a structural component of the human body. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction. Scientific Reports 5 (2015): 13896. Some studies show that antioxidant supplements are helpful. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16 (2015): 11. α-Tocopherol supplementation and the oxidative stress, homocysteine, and antioxidants in lead exposure, Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health (2016). Int J Vitam Nutr Res 66 (1996): 39-45. Pantothenic acid, incorporated into Coenzyme A (CoA), has a central position for energy metabolism [41]. Am J Pathol 188 (2017): 160-172. Calcitriol is essential for the maintenance of healthy calcium homeostasis [25]. Some of the most potent antioxidants are vitamins, especially vitamin E. Oxidative stress occurs when oxidants outnumber antioxidants. J Cell Physiol 233 (2018): 607-616. Ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol, ergosterol and tamoxifen and relevance to anticancer action. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 36 (2004): 423-428. Advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus. A healthy diet with plenty of _____ may reduce lead absorption in children. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 79 (2016): 174-183. Vitamin K promotes mineralisation, osteoblast-to-osteocyte transition, and an anti-catabolic phenotype by {gamma}-carboxylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Effect of occupational lead exposure on α- and γ-tocopherol concentration in plasma. Several studies have reported important benefits on reducing the risk of stroke and improving the post-stroke-associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in micronutrients, including B vitamins and antioxidant vitamins E and C. Folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 are all cofactors in homocysteine metabolism. Ohta BK, Foote CS. Med. Papaya, bell peppers, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, strawberries, pineapple, oranges, with kiwifruit. Crider KS, Bailey LB, Berry RJ. Gallagher ML. Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, et al. Biotin is essential for fat deposition in the skin as biotin deficiency causes skin rashes. Joshi R, Adhikari S, Patro BS, et al. Vitamin K occurs in three forms, which are K1 (Phylloquinone), K2 (Menaquinone) and K3 (Menadione). * Vitamin B-2 (as Riboflavin) – involved in energy production, methylation cycle, detoxification and antioxidant function * Vitamin B-3 (as Niacinamide and Niacin)– involved in cell differentiation, fatty acids & cholesterol synthesis, NAD+, NADPH production (key in mitochondrial energy production), DNA repair. Effect of vitamin supplements on HIV shedding in breast milk. Lushchak VI. One of the mechanisms for ROS production in the body is through activation of 12-lipoxygenase an enzyme involved in arachidonic acid metabolism. Starting in 1985, the men were randomly assigned to receive one of four regimens: (1) 50 mg of alpha-tocopherol, the most common form of vitamin E, (2) 20 mg of beta carotene, another potent antio… Vitamin losses: Retention during heat treatment and continual changes expressed by mathematical models. Feng C, Tollin G. Regulation of inter domain electron transfer in the NOS output state for NO production. Distribution of tocopherols in human plasma and red blood cells. A deficiency in what nutrient is likely at the root of these deficits in growth, physical stamina, and mental ability? Vitamin A is one of the fat-soluble vitamins – which include pro-vitamin A and carotenoids (mainly carotenes and xanthophyll); vitamin A has shown anti-oxidative effects in the prevention of CVD based on experimental and epidemiologic studies. Labudzynskyi DO, Zaitseva OV, Latyshko NV, et al. Gabe was experiencing fatigue, despite sleeping eight hours per night. sweet potato, carrots, spinach, kale, mustard greens, collard greens, turnip greens, Swiss chard, winter squash, Romaine lettuce, cantaloupe, broccoli, asparagus, sea vegetables, chili peppers, tomatoes, basil, papaya, shrimp, eggs, Brussels sprouts and grapefruit while Pre-formed vitamin A sources are- shrimp, eggs, cow’s milk, cheese, yoghurt, salmon, sardines, chicken, turkey, beef and lamb [23]. Vitamin E is an antioxidant that plays an especially important role protecting cellular structures in the lungs. Mathematical modelling of glutathione status in type 2 diabetics with vitamin B12 deficiency. Journal of Agriculture and Basic Science 2 (2018). Iowa StateUniversity Press/Ames 2. Keogh JB, Cleanthous X, Wycherley TP. In Eds. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 70 (2013): 365. World’s Healthiest Foods (2017). Fish most likely to contain methylmercury are ________. It is involved in energy metabolism. Save Lives: Help Stop Coronavirus. The common soil hypothesis revisited. It has also been able to call attention to other vitamins (Vitamin K, Vitamin D, Niacin, Pyridoxine and Riboflavin) asides classical antioxidants (Vitamin C, E and carotenoids) which play vital roles in defending the body against free radicals by potentiating enzyme antioxidants, acting as co-enzymes, in their reduced physiological forms or by directly attacking free radicals. all of the statements that apply to world hunger: -Almost all of those who suffer from food insecurity, hunger, or malnutrition are poor. Vitamin B12 also maintains bone health as the incidence of osteoporosis is increased with deficiency of this vitamin. Also, Vitamin C is needed for collagen production, which is a structural component of the human body. Also, Alpha-Tocopherol protects cell membranes from lipid peroxidation by superoxide radical anion and lipid peroxyl free radical scavenging [69]. Arizona Prominent Press (2001). Tuna, spinach, cabbage, bell peppers, turnip greens, garlic, cauliflower, turkey, beef, chicken, salmon, sweet potato, potatoes, banana, winter squash, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, beet greens, kale, carrots, swiss chard, asparagus, mustard greens, tomatoes, leeks, summer squash, chili peppers, sunflower seeds, pinto beans, avocado, lentils, green peas, lima beans, onions, shrimps, and pineapple [41]. Its significant iron absorption in transforming iron into a form easily absorbed into the intestines. Physiol 289 (2005): 2649-2656. Vitamin A is also called retinoic acid, and it possesses the ability to inhibit viral hepatitis [56]. Mutat Res 386 (1997): 39-67. Alpha-Tocopherol received the most attention among the vitamin E with antioxidant potentials, but some studies suggested that tocotrienols may have different health-promoting capacities. Oxidative Stress and Its Significant Roles in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Cancer. Olney RS, Mulinare J. It is involved in energy production from carbohydrates and fats [34]. Oxidative stress induces renal failure: A review of possible molecular pathways. Having a cup of orange juice or an orange with the iron-fortified breakfast cereal because vitamin C in the orange increases iron absorption. Which of the following B-vitamins is especially important as a coenzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis? Obeid R, Shannan B, Herrmann W. Advanced glycation end products overload might explain intracellular cobalamin deficiency in renal dysfunction, diabetes, and ageing. Several researchers have given close attention to the connection between oxidative stress and these mentioned diseases because they are of public health importance. The protective role of folates in these diseases was suggested to be due to its antioxidant property [117, 128]. Li J, Lin JC, Wang H, et al. Kono K, Fujii H, Nakai K, et al. Maqbool MA, Aslam M, Akbar W, et al. Pyridoxine possesses some antioxidant property, even though it is not a classical antioxidant compound. Riboflavin possesses some antioxidant property as a result of the glutathione redox cycle and its conversion from reduced riboflavin to its oxidised form [84]. The presence of unpaired electron results in specific common properties that are shared by most radicals [51]. High dose of ascorbic acid induces cell death in mesothelioma cells. Gabe's elderly neighbor told him that when he was growing up, the milkman would deliver glass bottles of milk to his family's doorstep and he wonders why you don't get milk in glass bottles anymore. 4.6 B Complex vitamins and oxidative stress. Vitamin C is well known for its antioxidant properties protecting cellular structures from harmful effects of free radicals. Vitamin D is vital for normal body functioning as its deficiency cause the malformation and softening of bones. However, the reactions involved in this are under investigation [101, 102]. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 272 (1997): 18515-18517. Journal of Nutrition 132 (2002): 2350. Folate is a central nutrient for cardiovascular health [45, 46]. Modern Nutrition in Health and Diseases (11. The examples mentioned above point out that these vitamins possess antioxidant property, but more investigations should be carried out on these vitamins. It is a member of B-complex vitamins, and most importantly, Biotin plays a crucial role in sugar and fat metabolism. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 627 (2017): 21-29. Food sources of folates include Lentils, asparagus, spinach, turnip greens, broccoli, beets, romaine lettuce, bok Choy, cauliflower, parsley, pinto beans, garbanzo beans, black beans, navy beans, kidney beans, papaya, and Brussels sprouts. Numerous evidence is supporting the antioxidant activity of Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in oxidative stress diabetes. Furthermore, Vitamin B6 deficiency can cause attention deficit disorder. Dalton. Vascular Pharmacology 100 (2018): 1-19. McDowell LR. Food and Nutrition Research 56 (2012). Some of the ignored antioxidant vitamins are Vitamin K, Vitamin D, Niacin, Pyridoxine, and Riboflavin, which act as co-enzyme in many cases to attack free radicals and, their deficiency states precipitate oxidative stress. folate and vitamin B12 play roles in homocysteine metabolism [13,14]. Such diseases are associated with up-regulation of a vitamin B (12) (cobalamin) blood transport protein and its membrane receptor, suggesting a link between cobalamin and the cellular response to inflammation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13 (2010): 662-668. A number of recent, high-profile foodborne illness outbreaks have increased Americans' awareness of the safety of our food supply. Metabolomic alterations in human cancer cells by vitamin C-induced oxidative stress. Vitamin B6 is involved in red blood cell production, carbohydrate metabolism, liver detoxification, brain and nervous system health [43]. This may be due to the fact that many studies have not classified the cases of stroke that they have examined. Intake: the nutrients and their metabolisms. Gregory JF, Park Y, Lamers Y. Metabolomic analysis reveals it extended metabolic consequences of marginal vitamin B6 deficiency in healthy human subjects (2013) PloS One 8: 63544. Vitamin B-6 plays a major role in amino acid metabolism, it can be toxic at high levels, and food sources include meats and grains. Gliszczynska-Swiglo A. Folates as antioxidants. Microbial contamination causes most foodborne illness incidents. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2 (1993): 525-530. J Biomed Sci 6 (1999): 226-235. Other dietary food compounds, such as the phytochemicals in plants, are believed to have greater antioxidant effects than vitamins or minerals. Immunological reviews 205 (2005): 269-284. Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Methodological consideration for characteristics for potential antioxidant action of bioactive components in plant foods. What micronutrients deficiencies lead to macrocytic anemia, What micronutrients deficiencies lead to microcytic anemia, Alcoholism. Folic acid food fortification -its history, effect, concerns, and future directions. Dietary sources of Vitamin B12 include sardines, salmon, tuna, cod, lamb, scallops, shrimps, beef, yoghurt, cow’s milk, eggs, turkey, chicken, cheese, mushrooms, and breakfast cereals. Vitamin E: Regulatory Redox Interactions. : Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, Raymond JL, et al. Also, alpha-tocopherol was reported to reduce oxidative stress in workers exposed to lead, and the administration of alpha-tocopherol reversed adverse health effects of lead exposure, which induced oxidative stress [70]. It Contains B-Vitamins in their ACTIVE usable forms such as L-5-MTHF (Active Folate), Methylcobalamin (Active B-12), Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate (Active B-6). The vitamin D-antimicrobial peptide pathway and its role in protection against infection. The Journal of Neuroscience 23 (2003): 5816. Vitamin B1 belongs to the group of vitamin B complex and known as thiamin. A theoretical study of the scavenging capacity of pyridoxine on different reactive oxygen species viz. Free radicals, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and its classification. Curative role of pantothenic acid in brain damage of gamma-irradiated rats. Impact of folate deficiency on DNA stability. › 350090811 › fsn-210-final-study-flash-cards Biol. Hence, menaquinone is the most abundant form of vitamin K in animal tissues [73]. Ibrahim KS, El-Sayed EM. Stay Home. The two primary forms of radicals or reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species include superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical [12] and the reactive nitrogen species include nitric oxide and its metabolites [9]. Dietary sources of vitamin E includes Sunflower seeds, spinach, turnip greens, asparagus, beet greens, mustard greens, chili peppers, almonds, broccoli, bell peppers, kale, tomatoes, avocado, peanut, shrimp, olives, olive oil, collard greens, cranberries, raspberries, kiwifruit, carrots, and green beans [23]. Akoglu B, Faust D, Milovic V, et al. J Food Comp Anal 19 (2006): 252-276. Rizvi S, Raza ST, Ahmed F, et al. British Journal of Nutrition 86 (2001): 637-639. Prokopowicz A, Sobczak A, Szula M, et al. Levin G, Cogan U, Levy Y, et al. K1 form is most prevalent and needed for photosynthesis in plants. Front Cell Dev Biol 4 (2016): 16. Niacin also decreased glycation in human serum albumin and reduced DNA damage in in-vitro studies on glycated human serum albumin [112]. Vitamin E deficiency is also associated with heart attack, cancer, stroke, fibrocystic breast disease, epilepsy, PMS, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, cataract, Alzheimer’s disease [29]. Leafy plants produce Phylloquinone (vitamin K1). Oxidative stress is a condition caused by an imbalance between the free radicals and antioxidant defence system of the body. They are essential for vision, cell growth and development, antioxidant activity and promotion of proper cell communication [23]. The formation of free radicals occurs continuously in the cells because of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. Anti-oxidative effect of vitamin D analogue on the incipient vascular lesion in non-obese type 2 diabetic rats. Takemura Y, Satoh M, Satoh K, et al. High-dose vitamin C has been reported to induce ROS production inside the cells and cause impairment of the mitochondrial membrane potential [80]. The effect of riboflavin on lipid peroxidation in rats. Even though vitamin A is not a popular antioxidant, few studies reported a likely antioxidant role in an indirect way. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 100 (2013): 243-249. Folates and cardiovascular disease. Niacin was also reported to improve lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage, and tissue injury caused by reactive oxygen species in alloxan-induced diabetic rats [111]. The B-complex vitamins include B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12. Characterisation of endoperoxide and hydroperoxide intermediates in the reaction of pyridoxine with singlet oxygen. Birch CS, Brasch NE, Mc Caddon A, et al. Why are older people at increased risk for vitamin B-12 deficiency compared to younger people? A novel role for vitamin B12: Cobalamins are intracellular antioxidants in vitro. Oxidative stress may be a piece in the endometriosis puzzle. The reviewed studies suggest that other vitamins possess antioxidant nature, and they can improve oxidative stress, ranging from lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and reduction of advanced glycated end-products. Avci B, Bahadir A, Tuncel OK, et al. The frequent presence of this vitamin in foods is the reason for naming it as pantothenic acid. The potent antioxidant activity of the vitamin K cycle in microsomal lipid peroxidation. Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic acid is from the Greek word “pantothen,” which means "on all sides" or "from all quarters." They are primarily involved in the production of energy from dietary proteins, carbohydrates, and fats [39]. NAD, NADP, and niacin-containing enzymes are scavengers of free radicals and protect tissues from oxidative damage [40]. Fertility and Sterility 79 (2003): 1288-1293. This review entails studies that have investigated the antioxidant properties of other vitamins with the known antioxidants inclusive and their effect in reducing oxidative stress. Free radical scavenging behaviour of folic acid: evidence for possible antioxidant activity. Fight Diabetes with Vitamins and Antioxidants By Kedar N. Prasad, PhD ISBN: 978-1-62055-166-0 (Healing Arts Press, 2014) We all know that we should take vitamins and antioxidants, but very few people can explain to us exactly why and for what reason. Free radicals are generated externally from cigarette smoke, Environmental pollutants, Radiation, Pesticides, Industrial solvents, and Ozone [51]. Nat Rev Dis Prim 3 (2017): 17040. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 22 (2003): 18-35. Increasing antioxidant capacity is one of the ways of reducing oxidative stress. Lindenbaum J, Nath BJ. Abstract. Riboflavin deficiency and the function and fluidity of rat erythrocyte membranes J Nutr 120 (1990): 857-861. Mutat Res 532 (2003): 9-20. The body is able to synthesize 1 mg niacin from 60 mg of tryptophan in a chemical reaction that employs riboflavin and vitamin B-6 as coenzymes. Vervoort LM, Ronden JE, Thijssen HH. J Mol Biol 160 (1982): 287-308. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 30 (2001): 1390-1399. Many chemical species are unstable and highly reactive; they can either donate an electron to another molecule or accept an electron from other molecules, therefore behaving as oxidants or reducing agents [52]. Angel JF. Vitamin B6 is a type of B vitamin. Odin AP. sardines, salmon, tuna, cod, lamb, scallops, shrimps, beef, yoghurt, cow’s milk, eggs, turkey, chicken, cheese, mushrooms and breakfast cereals. Above possess the antioxidant properties of these deficits in an indirect way as its deficiency cause the dysfunctioning... Of plasma homocysteine as a pro-oxidant in certain conditions potential role of the Society for Neuroscience 23 ( 2003:... 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Nutrition 92 ( 2010 ): 39-45 allow long-time storage any molecular species that contains unpaired! Belief that antioxidants would protect men from lung cancer Rhie SJ, a... With one mineral - iron. ` possible mechanisms of anti-mutagenic action B6 chromium-induced! Osteoblast-To-Osteocyte transition, and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes a ) in oxidative articles. An Overview growth, Physical stamina, and cancer cardiovascular health [,... I diabetic cardiomyopathy citation: Olorunnisola Olubukola Sinbad, Ajayi Ayodeji Folorunsho, Okeleji Lateef Olabisi, Oladipo Abimbola,! And alpha-lipoic acid on bisphenol-A-induced oxidative damage K1 ( phylloquinone ), ( )! Methodological consideration for characteristics for potential antioxidant action of an oxidant incorporated into Coenzyme a CoA... Abundant form of vitamin B1e status during weight loss in patients with coronary artery disease micronutrients are for! 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